Nirmal Banda, PhD, MS
Research Professor, Medicine-Rheumatology

Department: Medicine-Rheumatology

Research Interests

Dr. Banda has published work related to six funded R01 grants and served as a principal investigator and co-principal investigator. Dr. Banda’s research focuses on delivery mechanisms for complement inhibitory proteins, inhibitory antibodies, and siRNAs directly to the knee joints for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. At present, he is developing a bio-therapeutic,GalNAc-MASP-1/3-siRNA for their use in Rheumatoid Arthritis-related clinical trials aimed to design and patent medical treatment for arthritis based on the development of inhibitory antibodies and specific siRNA duplexes. With patent pending, this technology may further apply to the treatment of other complement-mediated autoimmune diseases. Dr. Banda wrote a book chapter on the activation of various complement pathways in animal serum. He introduced the novel concept of how two different organs, the liver and adipose tissue, act in concert as contributing etiology in the pathogenesis of arthritis. He showed that the MASP-1 and MASP-3 proteins play an important role in the induction of inflammatory arthritis in mice and natural inhibitors of MASPs such as MAp44 may play an important role to reduce the severity of arthritis. Dr. Banda is active in the international community as an expert in arthritis research and has been invited to speak in The Netherlands, Sweden, Greece, Germany, China, India and Japan. He most recently presented at "BeTheCure for Arthritis" workshop in Stockholm, Sweden, invited by Dr. Rikard Holmdahl to set Standards on Operating Procedures (SOP) in experimental arthritis. He also spoke at the 25th International Complement Workshop in Brazil specifically to address the therapeutic use of a new natural complement inhibitor, MAp44, in arthritis. Notable recent collaborations include extensive published works with Dr. William Arend, Distinguished Professor, during the discovery of an FDA-approved drug, IL-1Ra (Anakinra, brand name Kineret®) for the treatment of Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Dr. Banda also published extensively with Dr. V. Michael Holers, Division Head of Rheumatology. Prior distinguished publications include the original fundamental hypothesis that HIV-1 indirectly kills human CD4 T-cells via apoptosis. These studies were published in 1992 and 1995 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine and Nature Medicine, respectively. This theory is now one of the most accepted mechanisms in the understanding of HIV pathogenesis today, and these earlier works have been cited over 2000 times and part of many book chapters.


  • Protective role for collectin-11 in rheumatoid arthritis in mice by Wang, Na; Wu, Weiju; Qiang, Cui; Ma, Ning; Wu, Kunyi; Liu , Dan; Wang, Jia-Xing; Yang, Xiao; Xue, Li; Diao, Teng-Yue; Liu, Jia-Yu; Li, Ang; Zhang, Baojun; Li , Zong-Fang; Farrar , Conrad A.; Banda, Nirmal K.; Bayarri-Olmos, Rafael ; Garred, Peter; Zhou, Wuding; Li, Ke, Journal of Arthritis & Rheumatology. Manuscript ID is ar-20-0743.R1. In press 2021
  • Schnabolk G, Obert E, Banda NK, Rohrer B. Systemic Inflammation by Collagen-Induced Arthritis Affects the Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Differently in Two Mouse Models of the Disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2020 Dec 1;61(14):11. PubMed PMID: 33289791
  • Banda NK, Tomlinson S, Scheinman RI, Ho N, Ramirez JR, Mehta G, Wang G, Vu VP, Simberg D, Kulik L, Holers VM. C2 IgM Natural Antibody Enhances Inflammation and Its Use in the Recombinant Single Chain Antibody-Fused Complement Inhibitor C2-Crry to Target Therapeutics to Joints Attenuates Arthritis in Mice. Front Immunol. 2020;11:575154. PubMed PMID: 33178202
  • Gaikwad H, Li Y, Gifford G, Groman E, Banda NK, Saba L, Scheinman R, Wang G, Simberg D. Complement Inhibitors Block Complement C3 Opsonization and Improve Targeting Selectivity of Nanoparticles in Blood. Bioconjug Chem. 2020 Jul 15;31(7):1844-1856. PubMed PMID: 32598839
  • Holers VM, Borodovsky A, Scheinman RI, Ho N, Ramirez JR, Dobó J, Gál P, Lindenberger J, Hansen AG, Desai D, Pihl R, Thiel S, Banda NK. Key Components of the Complement Lectin Pathway Are Not Only Required for the Development of Inflammatory Arthritis but Also Regulate the Transcription of Factor D. Front Immunol. 2020;11:201. PubMed PMID: 32153567
  • C2 IgM natural antibody enhances experimental passive transfer arthritis in mice and its use in a recombinant single chain antibody-fused complement inhibitor C2-Crry to target therapeutics in vivo attenuates collagen-induced arthritis Nirmal K. Banda1*, Stephen Tomlinson2, Robert I. Scheinman3, Nhu Ho1,3, Joseline Ramos Ramirez1, Gaurav Mehta1, Guankui Wang3, Vivian Pham Vu3, Dmitri Simberg3, Liudmila Kulik1, and V. Michael Holers1 Submitted to the 28th International Complement Workshop to be held in September 2020 in Berlin, Germany but meeting was canceled due to COVID-19 and rescheduled in the fall of 2021
  • Multipectral ImmnuoHistoChemical Bio Distribution of Complement Components in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovium Nirmal K. Banda1, Kevin D. Deane1, Kimberly Jordan2, Jennifer Seifert1, V. Michael Holers1 1Division of Rheumatology, 2Department of Immunology & Microbiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado Submitted to the 28th International Complement Workshop to be held in September 2020 in Berlin, Germany but meeting was canceled due to COVID-19 and rescheduled in the fall of 2021
  • RNA Profiling and Multispectral Immnuohistochemical Analysis of Complement Components in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovium Nirmal K. Banda1, Myles J. Lewis2, Kevin D. Deane1, Kimberly Jordan3, Jennifer Seifert1, Costantino Pitzalis2, V. Michael Holers1 13th International Conference on Complement Therapeutics aka Aegean conference but the meeting was canceled due to COVID-19
  • Bemis EA, Norris JM, Seifert J, Frazer-Abel A, Okamoto Y, Feser ML, Demoruelle MK, Deane KD, Banda NK, Holers VM. Complement and its environmental determinants in the progression of human rheumatoid arthritis. Mol Immunol. 2019 Aug;112:256-265. PubMed PMID: 31207549
  • Lofchy LA, Vu VP, Banda NK, Ramirez JR, Smith WJ, Gifford G, Gaikwad H, Scheinman RI, Simberg D. Evaluation of Targeting Efficiency of Joints with Anticollagen II Antibodies. Mol Pharm. 2019 Jun 3;16(6):2445-2451. PubMed PMID: 31091104
  • Gifford G, Vu VP, Banda NK, Holers VM, Wang G, Groman EV, Backos D, Scheinman R, Moghimi SM, Simberg D. Complement therapeutics meets nanomedicine: overcoming human complement activation and leukocyte uptake of nanomedicines with soluble domains of CD55. J Control Release. 2019 May 28;302:181-189. PubMed PMID: 30974134
  • Fridkis-Hareli M, Storek M, Or E, Altman R, Katti S, Sun F, Peng T, Hunter J, Johnson K, Wang Y, Lundberg AS, Mehta G, Banda NK, Michael Holers V. The human complement receptor type 2 (CR2)/CR1 fusion protein TT32, a novel targeted inhibitor of the classical and alternative pathway C3 convertases, prevents arthritis in active immunization and passive transfer mouse models. Mol Immunol. 2019 Jan;105:150-164. PubMed PMID: 30513451
  • Wu L, Uldahl KB, Chen F, Benasutti H, Logvinski D, Vu V, Banda NK, Peng X, Simberg D, Moghimi SM. Interaction of extremophilic archaeal viruses with human and mouse complement system and viral biodistribution in mice. Mol Immunol. 2017 Oct;90:273-279. PubMed PMID: 28846925
  • Banda NK, Acharya S, Scheinman RI, Mehta G, Takahashi M, Endo Y, Zhou W, Farrar CA, Sacks SH, Fujita T, Sekine H, Holers VM. Deconstructing the Lectin Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Inflammatory Arthritis: Essential Role of the Lectin Ficolin B and Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Protease 2. J Immunol. 2017 Sep 1;199(5):1835-1845. PubMed PMID: 28739878
  • Wang G, Griffin JI, Inturi S, Brenneman B, Banda NK, Holers VM, Moghimi SM, Simberg D. In Vitro and In Vivo Differences in Murine Third Complement Component (C3) Opsonization and Macrophage/Leukocyte Responses to Antibody-Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoworms. Front Immunol. 2017;8:151. PubMed PMID: 28239384
  • Willis VC, Banda NK, Cordova KN, Chandra PE, Robinson WH, Cooper DC, Lugo D, Mehta G, Taylor S, Tak PP, Prinjha RK, Lewis HD, Holers VM. Protein arginine deiminase 4 inhibition is sufficient for the amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017 May;188(2):263-274. PubMed PMID: 28128853
  • Chen F, Wang G, Griffin JI, Brenneman B, Banda NK, Holers VM, Backos DS, Wu L, Moghimi SM, Simberg D. Complement proteins bind to nanoparticle protein corona and undergo dynamic exchange in vivo. Nat Nanotechnol. 2017 May;12(4):387-393. PubMed PMID: 27992410
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General Information

Department: Medicine-Rheumatology