Steve Moulton, MD
Professor, Surgery-Peds Surgery

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Medical School:
  • MD, University of Washington School of Medicine (1986)
Undergraduate School:
  • BSc, University of Washington (WA) (1982)
Internship:
  • University of California (San Diego) Program (1987)
Residency:
  • University of California (San Diego) Program, Surgery (1993)
Fellowships:
  • SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn Program, Pediatric Surgery (1995)
  • University of California (San Diego) Program, ECMO (1989)
Languages: English, Russian
Department: Surgery-Peds Surgery

Professional Titles

  • Director, Burn Program
  • Director, Trauma Program

Research Interests

My research is in the fields of trauma, burns and medical device development. My focus lies in the development of resuscitation algorithms using machine learning approaches.

Teaching

  • Professor of Surgery (2007)
    School of Medicine, Surgery

Publications

  • Ehrmann DE, Leopold DK, Campbell K, Silveira L, Gist KM, Phillips R, Shahi N, Moulton SL, Kim JS. Lessons Learned From the First Pilot Study of the Compensatory Reserve Index After Congenital Heart Surgery Requiring Cardiopulmonary Bypass. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2021 Mar;12(2):176-184. PubMed PMID: 33684010
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Meier M, Shirek G, Goldsmith A, Soden JS, Kaufman J, Moulton S. Gastrostomy Button Placement in Infants With Cyanotic Versus Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease. J Surg Res. 2021 Mar;259:407-413. PubMed PMID: 33616074
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Meier M, Shirek G, Choi YM, Acker SN, Bensard D, Moulton S. Comparison of non-invasive physiological assessment tools between simple and perforated appendicitis in children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2021 Jul;37(7):851-857. PubMed PMID: 33783635
  • Phillips R, Meier M, Shahi N, Acker S, Reppucci M, Shirek G, Recicar J, Moulton S, Bensard D. Elevated pediatric age-adjusted shock-index (SIPA) in blunt solid organ injuries. J Pediatr Surg. 2021 Feb;56(2):401-404. PubMed PMID: 33358417
  • Shahi N, Phillips RC, Rodenburg C, Meier M, Shirek GP, Recicar JF, Moulton SL, Bensard DD. Combining Cribari Matrix and Need For Trauma Intervention (NFTI) to Accurately Assess Under Triage in Pediatric Trauma. J Pediatr Surg 2021 Aug;56(8):1401-1404
  • Shahi N, Skillman HE, Phillips RC, Cooper EH, Shirek GP, Goldsmith A, Meier MR, Kaizer AM, Recicar JF, Banks A, Moulton SL. Why delay? Early Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Burn Patients Improves Outcomes. J Burn Care Res 2021;42(2):171-176
  • Shahi N, Phillips RC, Acker SN, Meier M, Goldsmith A, Shirek GP, Ladd P, Moulton SL, Bensard DD. Enough is Enough: Radiation Doses in Children with Gastro-jejunal Tubes. J Pediatr Surg 2021;56(4):668-673
  • Shahi N, Phillips RC, Meier M, Poyastro G, Goldsmith A, Soden J, Kaufman J, Moulton SL. Gastrostomy Button Placement in Infants with Cyanotic versus Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease. J Surg Res 2021;259(3):407-413
  • Phillips RC, Meier M, Shahi N, Acker S, Reppucci ML, Shirek G, Recicar JF, Moulton SL, Bensard DD. Elevated pediatric age adjusted shock-index (SIPA) in blunt solid organ injuries. J Pediatr Surg 2021;56(2):401-404
  • Shahi N, Shahi AK, Phillips RC, Shirek G, Bensard DD, Moulton SL. Decision-Making in Pediatric Blunt Solid Organ Injury: A Deep Learning Approach to Predict Massive Transfusion, Need for Operative Management, and Mortality Risk. J Pediatr Surg 2021;56(2):379-384
  • Ehrmann D, Leopold D, Campbell K, Silveira L, Gist K, Phillips RC, Shahi N, Moulton SL, Kim J. Lessons learned from the first pilot study of the compensatory reserve index after congenital heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2021 Mar;12(2):176-184
  • Shahi N, Phillips RC, Meier M, Shirek G, Choi YM, Acker SN, Bensard DD, Moulton SL. Comparison of Physiological Assessment Tools between Simple and Perforated Appendicitis in Children. Pediatr Surg Int 2021;37(7):851-857
  • Shahi N, Shahi AK, Phillips RC, Shirek G, Lindberg DM, Moulton SL. Using Deep Learning and Natural Language Processing Models to Detect Child Physical Abuse. J Pediatr Surg. Published online March 18, 2021 ahead of print
  • Phillips RC, Moore H, Bensard DD, Shahi N, Shirek G, Meier M, Recicar JF, Acker S, Kim J, Moulton SL. It’s Time for TEG in Pediatric Trauma: Unveiling Meaningful Alterations in Children Who Undergo Massive Transfusion. Pediatr Surg Int 2021 Nov;37(11):1613-1620
  • Phillips RC, Shahi N, Acker S, Meier M, Shirek G, Recicar J, Moulton SL, Bensard DD. Not as Simple as ABC: Tools to Trigger Massive Transfusion in Pediatric Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Sep 16, online ahead of print
  • Harrell KN, Grimes AD, Albrecht RM, et al. Management of Blunt Traumatic Abdominal Wall Hernias: A Western Trauma Association Multicenter Study. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021;91(5):834-40
  • Stevens J, Pickett K, Moore H, Reppucci ML, Phillips RC, Moulton SL, Bensard DD. Thrombo-elastography and Transfusion Patterns in Severely Injured Pediatric Trauma Patients with Blunt Solid Organ Injuries. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021, Aug 25, online ahead of print
  • Steven J, Reppucci ML, Maxene M, Phillips RC, Shahi N, Shirek G, Bensard DD, Moulton SL. Pre-hospital and Emergency Department Shock Index Pediatric Age-Adjusted (SIPA) “Cut Points” to Identify Pediatric Trauma Patients at Risk for Massive Transfusion and/or Mortality. J Pediatr Surg 2021, Oct 9, online ahead of print
  • Reppucci ML, Pickett K, Stevens J, Phillips RC, Recicar JF, Annen K, Moulton SL. Massive Transfusion in Pediatric Trauma – Does More Blood Predict Mortality? J Pediatr Surg 2021, Oct 8, online ahead of print
  • Shahi N, Stevens J, Kaizer A, Phillips RC, Acker SN, Choi YM, Shirek G Bensard DD, Bruny J, Dannull K, Moulton SL. A Surgeon’s Predicament: Clinical Predictors Associated with Surgical Management and Mortality in Pediatric Patients with Typhlitis. J Pediatric Surg 2021, Sept 4, online ahead of print
  • Shirek G, Phillips RC, Shahi N, Pickett K, Meier M, Recicar J, Moulton SL. To Give or Not to Give? Blood for Pediatric Trauma Patients Prior to Pediatric Trauma Center Arrival. Pediatr Surg Int 2021, Oct 4, online ahead of print
  • Stevens J, Phillips RC, Meier M, Reppucci ML, Acker S, Shahi N, Shirek G, Bensard DD, Moulton SL. Novel Tool (BIS) Heralds the Need for Blood Transfusion and/or Failure of Nonoperative Management in Pediatric Blunt Liver and Spleen Injuries. J Pediatr Surg 2021, Oct 2, online ahead of print
  • Reppucci ML, Acker SN, Cooper E, Meier M, Stevens J, Phillips RC, Moulton SL, Bensard DD. Improved identification of severely injured pediatric trauma patients using reverse shock index multiplied by Glasgow Coma Scale (rSIG). J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021, accepted for publication
  • Phillips R, Shahi N, Shirek G, Stevens J, Meier M, Recicar J, Lindberg DM, Kim J, Moulton S. Meaningful viscoelastic abnormalities in abusive and non-abusive pediatric trauma. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Oct 25. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 33280852
  • Shahi N, Shahi AK, Phillips R, Shirek G, Bensard D, Moulton SL. Decision-making in pediatric blunt solid organ injury: a deep learning approach to predict massive transfusion, need for operative management, and mortality risk. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Oct 24. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 33218680
  • Shahi N, Shirek G, Pickett K, Schwartz A, Shoop J, Phillips R, Workman R, Kaplan D, Pitula C, Moulton S. A Pilot Study using the Compensatory Reserve Index to evaluate individuals with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome. Cardiol Young. 2020 Dec;30(12):1833-1839. PubMed PMID: 32993834
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Rodenburg C, Meier M, Shirek G, Recicar J, Moulton S, Bensard D. Combining Cribari matrix and Need For Trauma Intervention (NFTI) to accurately assess undertriage in pediatric trauma. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32951889
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Acker SN, Meier M, Goldsmith A, Shirek G, Ladd P, Moulton SL, Bensard D. Enough is enough: Radiation doses in children with gastrojejunal tubes. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32921427
  • Phillips R, Shahi N, Bensard D, Meier M, Shirek G, Goldsmith A, Recicar J, Haasz M, Schroeppel T, Moulton S. Guns, scalpels, and sutures: The cost of gunshot wounds in children and adolescents. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020 Sep;89(3):558-564. PubMed PMID: 32833412
  • Shahi N, Skillman HE, Phillips R, Cooper EH, Shirek GP, Goldsmith A, Meier MR, Kaizer AM, Recicar JF, Banks A, Moulton SL. Why delay? Early Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Burn Patients Improves Outcomes. J Burn Care Res. 2020 Aug 18. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32810219
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Meier M, Shirek G, Goldsmith A, Soden JS, Kaufman J, Moulton S. The Nissen Unwrapped: Predictors and Outcomes of Nissen Fundoplication in Congenital Heart Disease. J Surg Res. 2020 Jul 23;256:251-257. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32712438
  • Phillips R, Acker S, Shahi N, Shirek G, Meier M, Goldsmith A, Recicar J, Moulton S, Bensard D. The shock index, pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) enhanced: Prehospital and emergency department SIPA values forecast transfusion needs for blunt solid organ injured children. Surgery. 2020 Oct;168(4):690-694. PubMed PMID: 32660865
  • Ehrmann DE, Leopold DK, Phillips R, Shahi N, Campbell K, Ross M, Zablah JE, Moulton SL, Morgan G, Kim JS. The Compensatory Reserve Index Responds to Acute Hemodynamic Changes in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease: A Proof of Concept Study. Pediatr Cardiol. 2020 Aug;41(6):1190-1198. PubMed PMID: 32474738
  • Shahi N, Meier M, Phillips R, Shirek G, Goldsmith A, Recicar J, Zuk J, Bielsky A, Yaster M, Moulton S. Pain Management for Pediatric Burns in the Outpatient Setting: A Changing Paradigm?. J Burn Care Res. 2020 Jul 3;41(4):814-819. PubMed PMID: 32303748
  • Bernard M, Martin MJ, Corsa J, Robinson B, Zeeshan M, Joseph B, Morris D, Shillinglaw W, Schurr M, Smith T, Lara S, Brown C, Harrell K, Maxwell R, Berndtson AE, Curry T, Kaups K, Dirks R, Rott M, Schroeppel T, Stillman Z, Warriner Z, Inaba K, Burlew C, Robinson C, Jackson R, Dunn J, Chapin T, Wilson A, Moulton S, Phillips R, Shahi N, Urban S, Velopulos C, Davenport D, C Bernard A. Into the wild and on to the table: A Western Trauma Association multicenter analysis and comparison of wilderness falls in rock climbers and nonclimbers. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020 Sep;89(3):570-575. PubMed PMID: 32265389
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Meier M, Smith D, Leopold D, Recicar J, Moulton S. The true cost of child abuse at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Feb;55(2):335-340. PubMed PMID: 31744603
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Meier M, Nehler M, Jacobs D, Recicar J, Bensard D, Moulton S. Anti-coagulation management in pediatric traumatic vascular injuries. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Feb;55(2):324-330. PubMed PMID: 31732119
  • Phillips R, Acker SN, Shahi N, Meier M, Leopold D, Recicar J, Kulungowski A, Patrick D, Moulton S, Bensard D. The ABC-D score improves the sensitivity in predicting need for massive transfusion in pediatric trauma patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Feb;55(2):331-334. PubMed PMID: 31718872
  • Leopold DK, Phillips RC, Shahi N, Gien J, Marwan AI, Kinsella JP, Mulligan J, Liechty KW, Moulton SL. Low postnatal CRI values are associated with the need for ECMO in newborns with CDH. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Jan;55(1):39-44. PubMed PMID: 31679772
  • Acker SN, Hill LRS, Bensard DD, Moulton S, Partrick DA. The benefits of limiting scheduled blood draws in children with a blunt liver or spleen injury. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Jul;55(7):1219-1223. PubMed PMID: 31133284
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Meier M, Smith D, Leopold D, Recicar J, Moulton S. The True Cost of Child Abuse at a Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Nov 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31744603
  • Shahi N, Phillips R, Meier M, Nehler M, Jacobs D, Recicar J, Bensard D, Moulton S. Anti-coagulation management in pediatric traumatic vascular injuries. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Oct 31. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31732119
  • Phillips R, Acker SN, Shahi N, Meier M, Leopold D, Recicar J, Kulungowski A, Patrick D, Moulton S, Bensard D. The ABC-D score improves the sensitivity in predicting need for massive transfusion in pediatric trauma patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Nov 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31718872
  • Leopold DK, Phillips RC, Shahi N, Gien J, Marwan AI, Kinsella JP, Mulligan J, Liechty KW, Moulton SL. Low Postnatal CRI Values Are Associated with the Need for ECMO in Newborns with CDH. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Oct 25. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31679772
  • Acker SN, Hill LRS, Bensard DD, Moulton S, Partrick DA. The benefits of limiting scheduled blood draws in children with a blunt liver or spleen injury. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 May 16. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31133284
  • Choi YM, Chopra T, Smith D, Moulton S. Sun heated surfaces are an environmental hazard for young children. Perspect Public Health. 2019 Sep;139(5):264-270. PubMed PMID: 30920359
  • Choi YM, Campbell K, Hayes K, Jacobson R, Kobak G, Moulton S. Model to estimate abdominal wall thickness in children undergoing placement or replacement of gastrostomy devices. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Apr;54(4):707-711. PubMed PMID: 30482537
  • Choi YM, Campbell K, Levek C, Recicar J, Moulton S. Antibiotic ointment versus a silver-based dressing for children with extremity burns: A randomized controlled study. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Jul;54(7):1391-1396. PubMed PMID: 29983189
  • Bennett CV, Maguire S, Nuttall D, Lindberg DM, Moulton S, Bajaj L, Kemp AM, Mullen S. First aid for children's burns in the US and UK: An urgent call to establish and promote international standards. Burns. 2019 Mar;45(2):440-449. PubMed PMID: 30266196
  • Stewart CL, Nawn CD, Mulligan J, Grudic G, Moulton SL, Convertino VA. Compensatory Reserve for Early and Accurate Prediction of Hemodynamic Compromise: Case Studies for Clinical Utility in Acute Care and Physical Performance. J Spec Oper Med. 2016 Spring;16(1):6-13. PubMed PMID: 27045488
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Professional Memberships

  • American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Member
  • American Pediatric Surgical Association, Member
  • American College of Surgeons (ACS), Member
  • American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, Member
  • Western Trauma Association, Member
  • American Burn Association, Member
  • North American Burn Society, Member
  • Western Pediatric Trauma Conference, Founding Member

Practice Locations

Children's Hospital Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
13123 East 16th Ave
Aurora, CO 80045
720-777-1234

Hospital Affiliation
  • Children's Hospital Colorado
  • University of Colorado Hospital
  • Kaiser
  • Denver Health Medical Center

Specialty Information

Specialties
  • Pediatric Surgery, Board Certification
  • Surgery, Board Certification
Conditions & Treatments
  • Surgery
  • Surgery - Burn Surgery
  • Surgery - Trauma and Acute Care
Clinical Interests
I am interested in all aspects of general pediatric surgery, including neonatal, urological and thoracic surgery. My particular area of focus is pediatric trauma and burns.

Personal Interests
Skiing, backpacking, boating.

General Information

Medical Schools:
  • MD, University of Washington School of Medicine (1986)
Undergraduate Schools:
  • BSc, University of Washington (WA) (1982)
Internships:
  • University of California (San Diego) Program (1987)
Residency Programs:
  • University of California (San Diego) Program, Surgery (1993)
Fellowships:
  • SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn Program, Pediatric Surgery (1995)
  • University of California (San Diego) Program, ECMO (1989)
Languages: English, Russian
Department: Surgery-Peds Surgery
Contact Us
CU Anschutz
Fitzsimons Building

13001 East 17th Place
Campus Box C290
Aurora, CO 80045

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