Paul Norman, PhD
Associate Professor, Medicine-Bioinformatics

Publications

  • Dimou A, Grewe P, Sidney J, Sette A, Norman PJ, Doebele RC. HLA Class I Binding of Mutant EGFR Peptides in NSCLC Is Associated With Improved Survival. J Thorac Oncol. 2021 Jan;16(1):104-112. PubMed PMID: 32927123
  • Anderson KM, Augusto DG, Dandekar R, Shams H, Zhao C, Yusufali T, Montero-Martín G, Marin WM, Nemat-Gorgani N, Creary LE, Caillier S, Mofrad MRK, Parham P, Fernández-Viña M, Oksenberg JR, Norman PJ, Hollenbach JA. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Variants Are Associated with Protection from Symptoms Associated with More Severe Course in Parkinson Disease. J Immunol. 2020 Sep 1;205(5):1323-1330. PubMed PMID: 32709660
  • Alicata C, Ashouri E, Nemat-Gorgani N, Guethlein LA, Marin WM, Tao S, Moretta L, Hollenbach JA, Trowsdale J, Traherne JA, Ghaderi A, Parham P, Norman PJ. KIR Variation in Iranians Combines High Haplotype and Allotype Diversity With an Abundance of Functional Inhibitory Receptors. Front Immunol. 2020;11:556. PubMed PMID: 32300348
  • Leaton LA, Shortt J, Kichula KM, Tao S, Nemat-Gorgani N, Mentzer AJ, Oppenheimer SJ, Deng Z, Hollenbach JA, Gignoux CR, Guethlein LA, Parham P, Carrington M, Norman PJ. Conservation, Extensive Heterozygosity, and Convergence of Signaling Potential All Indicate a Critical Role for KIR3DL3 in Higher Primates. Front Immunol. 2019;10:24. PubMed PMID: 30745901
  • Hollenbach JA, Norman PJ, Creary LE, Damotte V, Montero-Martin G, Caillier S, Anderson KM, Misra MK, Nemat-Gorgani N, Osoegawa K, Santaniello A, Renschen A, Marin WM, Dandekar R, Parham P, Tanner CM, Hauser SL, Fernandez-Viña M, Oksenberg JR. A specific amino acid motif of HLA-DRB1 mediates risk and interacts with smoking history in Parkinson's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Apr 9;116(15):7419-7424. PubMed PMID: 30910980
  • Nemat-Gorgani N, Guethlein LA, Henn BM, Norberg SJ, Chiaroni J, Sikora M, Quintana-Murci L, Mountain JL, Norman PJ, Parham P. Diversity of KIR, HLA Class I, and Their Interactions in Seven Populations of Sub-Saharan Africans. J Immunol. 2019 May 1;202(9):2636-2647. PubMed PMID: 30918042
  • Augusto DG, Norman PJ, Dandekar R, Hollenbach JA. Fluctuating and Geographically Specific Selection Characterize Rapid Evolution of the Human KIR Region. Front Immunol. 2019;10:989. PubMed PMID: 31156615
  • Fumagalli M, Camus SM, Diekmann Y, Burke A, Camus MD, Norman PJ, Joseph A, Abi-Rached L, Benazzo A, Rasteiro R, Mathieson I, Topf M, Parham P, Thomas MG, Brodsky FM. Genetic diversity of CHC22 clathrin impacts its function in glucose metabolism. Elife. 2019 Jun 4;8. PubMed PMID: 31159924
  • Niehrs A, Garcia-Beltran WF, Norman PJ, Watson GM, Hölzemer A, Chapel A, Richert L, Pommerening-Röser A, Körner C, Ozawa M, Martrus G, Rossjohn J, Lee JH, Berry R, Carrington M, Altfeld M. A subset of HLA-DP molecules serve as ligands for the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44. Nat Immunol. 2019 Sep;20(9):1129-1137. PubMed PMID: 31358998
  • Deng Z, Zhao J, Cai S, Qi Y, Yu Q, Martin MP, Gao X, Chen R, Zhuo J, Zhen J, Zhang M, Zhang G, He L, Zou H, Lu L, Zhu W, Hong W, Carrington M, Norman PJ. Natural Killer Cells Offer Differential Protection From Leukemia in Chinese Southern Han. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1646. PubMed PMID: 31379844
  • Wojcik GL, Graff M, Nishimura KK, Tao R, Haessler J, Gignoux CR, Highland HM, Patel YM, Sorokin EP, Avery CL, Belbin GM, Bien SA, Cheng I, Cullina S, Hodonsky CJ, Hu Y, Huckins LM, Jeff J, Justice AE, Kocarnik JM, Lim U, Lin BM, Lu Y, Nelson SC, Park SL, Poisner H, Preuss MH, Richard MA, Schurmann C, Setiawan VW, Sockell A, Vahi K, Verbanck M, Vishnu A, Walker RW, Young KL, Zubair N, Acuña-Alonso V, Ambite JL, Barnes KC, Boerwinkle E, Bottinger EP, Bustamante CD, Caberto C, Canizales-Quinteros S, Conomos MP, Deelman E, Do R, Doheny K, Fernández-Rhodes L, Fornage M, Hailu B, Heiss G, Henn BM, Hindorff LA, Jackson RD, Laurie CA, Laurie CC, Li Y, Lin DY, Moreno-Estrada A, Nadkarni G, Norman PJ, Pooler LC, Reiner AP, Romm J, Sabatti C, Sandoval K, Sheng X, Stahl EA, Stram DO, Thornton TA, Wassel CL, Wilkens LR, Winkler CA, Yoneyama S, Buyske S, Haiman CA, Kooperberg C, Le Marchand L, Loos RJF, Matise TC, North KE, Peters U, Kenny EE, Carlson CS. Genetic analyses of diverse populations improves discovery for complex traits. Nature. 2019 Jun;570(7762):514-518. PubMed PMID: 31217584
  • Petrushkin H, Norman PJ, Lougee E, Parham P, Wallace GR, Stanford MR, Fortune F. KIR3DL1/S1 Allotypes Contribute Differentially to the Development of Behçet Disease. J Immunol. 2019 Sep 15;203(6):1629-1635. PubMed PMID: 31405953
  • Pugh J, Nemat-Gorgani N, Djaoud Z, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Parham P. In vitro education of human natural killer cells by KIR3DL1. Life Sci Alliance. 2019 Dec;2(6). PubMed PMID: 31723004
  • Huhn O, Chazara O, Ivarsson MA, Retière C, Venkatesan TC, Norman PJ, Hilton HG, Jayaraman J, Traherne JA, Trowsdale J, Ito M, Kling C, Parham P, Ghadially H, Moffett A, Sharkey AM, Colucci F. Correction: High-Resolution Genetic and Phenotypic Analysis of KIR2DL1 Alleles and Their Association with Pre-Eclampsia. J Immunol. 2019 Mar 15;202(6):1904. PubMed PMID: 30728211
  • Wagner I, Schefzyk D, Pruschke J, Schöfl G, Schöne B, Gruber N, Lang K, Hofmann J, Gnahm C, Heyn B, Marin WM, Dandekar R, Hollenbach JA, Schetelig J, Pingel J, Norman PJ, Sauter J, Schmidt AH, Lange V. Allele-Level KIR Genotyping of More Than a Million Samples: Workflow, Algorithm, and Observations. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2843. PubMed PMID: 30564239
  • Amorim LM, Santos THS, Hollenbach JA, Norman PJ, Marin WM, Dandekar R, Ribeiro EMSF, Petzl-Erler ML, Augusto DG. Cost-effective and fast KIR gene-content genotyping by multiplex melting curve analysis. HLA. 2018 Dec;92(6):384-391. PubMed PMID: 30468002
  • Misra MK, Augusto DG, Martin GM, Nemat-Gorgani N, Sauter J, Hofmann JA, Traherne JA, González-Quezada B, Gorodezky C, Bultitude WP, Marin W, Vierra-Green C, Anderson KM, Balas A, Caro-Oleas JL, Cisneros E, Colucci F, Dandekar R, Elfishawi SM, Fernández-Viña MA, Fouda M, González-Fernández R, Große A, Herrero-Mata MJ, Hollenbach SQ, Marsh SGE, Mentzer A, Middleton D, Moffett A, Moreno-Hidalgo MA, Mossallam GI, Nakimuli A, Oksenberg JR, Oppenheimer SJ, Parham P, Petzl-Erler ML, Planelles D, Sánchez-García F, Sánchez-Gordo F, Schmidt AH, Trowsdale J, Vargas LB, Vicario JL, Vilches C, Norman PJ, Hollenbach JA. Report from the Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) component of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop. Hum Immunol. 2018 Dec;79(12):825-833. PubMed PMID: 30321631
  • Huhn O, Chazara O, Ivarsson MA, Retière C, Venkatesan TC, Norman PJ, Hilton HG, Jayaraman J, Traherne JA, Trowsdale J, Ito M, Kling C, Parham P, Ghadially H, Moffett A, Sharkey AM, Colucci F. High-Resolution Genetic and Phenotypic Analysis of KIR2DL1 Alleles and Their Association with Pre-Eclampsia. J Immunol. 2018 Nov 1;201(9):2593-2601. PubMed PMID: 30249807
  • Nemat-Gorgani N, Hilton HG, Henn BM, Lin M, Gignoux CR, Myrick JW, Werely CJ, Granka JM, Möller M, Hoal EG, Yawata M, Yawata N, Boelen L, Asquith B, Parham P, Norman PJ. Different Selected Mechanisms Attenuated the Inhibitory Interaction of KIR2DL1 with C2( ) HLA-C in Two Indigenous Human Populations in Southern Africa. J Immunol. 2018 Apr 15;200(8):2640-2655. PubMed PMID: 29549179
  • Pugh JL, Nemat-Gorgani N, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Human NK Cells Downregulate Zap70 and Syk in Response to Prolonged Activation or DNA Damage. J Immunol. 2018 Feb 1;200(3):1146-1158. PubMed PMID: 29263215
  • Wroblewski EE, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Li Y, Shaw CM, Han AS, Ndjango JN, Ahuka-Mundeke S, Georgiev AV, Peeters M, Hahn BH, Parham P. Bonobos Maintain Immune System Diversity with Three Functional Types of MHC-B. J Immunol. 2017 May 1;198(9):3480-3493. PubMed PMID: 28348269
  • Norman PJ, Norberg SJ, Guethlein LA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Royce T, Wroblewski EE, Dunn T, Mann T, Alicata C, Hollenbach JA, Chang W, Shults Won M, Gunderson KL, Abi-Rached L, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Sequences of 95 human MHC haplotypes reveal extreme coding variation in genes other than highly polymorphic HLA class I and II . Genome Res. 2017 May;27(5):813-823. PubMed PMID: 28360230
  • Hilton HG, Blokhuis JH, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Parham P. Resurrecting KIR2DP1: A Key Intermediate in the Evolution of Human Inhibitory NK Cell Receptors That Recognize HLA-C. J Immunol. 2017 Mar 1;198(5):1961-1973. PubMed PMID: 28122963
  • Béziat V, Hilton HG, Norman PJ, Traherne JA. Deciphering the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor system at super-resolution for natural killer and T-cell biology. Immunology. 2017 Mar;150(3):248-264. PubMed PMID: 27779741
  • Djaoud Z, Guethlein LA, Horowitz A, Azzi T, Nemat-Gorgani N, Olive D, Nadal D, Norman PJ, Münz C, Parham P. Two alternate strategies for innate immunity to Epstein-Barr virus: One using NK cells and the other NK cells and ?d T cells. J Exp Med. 2017 Jun 5;214(6):1827-1841. PubMed PMID: 28468758
  • Robinson J, Guethlein LA, Cereb N, Yang SY, Norman PJ, Marsh SGE, Parham P. Distinguishing functional polymorphism from random variation in the sequences of >10,000 HLA-A, -B and -C alleles. PLoS Genet. 2017 Jun;13(6):e1006862. PubMed PMID: 28650991
  • Blokhuis JH, Hilton HG, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Nemat-Gorgani N, Nakimuli A, Chazara O, Moffett A, Parham P. KIR2DS5 allotypes that recognize the C2 epitope of HLA-C are common among Africans and absent from Europeans. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2017 Dec;5(4):461-468. PubMed PMID: 28685972
  • Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Heijmans CM, de Groot NG, Hilton HG, Babrzadeh F, Abi-Rached L, Bontrop RE, Parham P. Two Orangutan Species Have Evolved Different KIR Alleles and Haplotypes. J Immunol. 2017 Apr 15;198(8):3157-3169. PubMed PMID: 28264973
  • Horowitz A, Djaoud Z, Nemat-Gorgani N, Blokhuis J, Hilton HG, Béziat V, Malmberg KJ, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Class I HLA haplotypes form two schools that educate NK cells in different ways. Sci Immunol. 2016 Sep;1(3). PubMed PMID: 27868107
  • Ashouri E, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Han AS, Nemat-Gorgani N, Norberg SJ, Ghaderi A, Parham P. HLA class I variation in Iranian Lur and Kurd populations: high haplotype and allotype diversity with an abundance of KIR ligands. HLA. 2016 Sep;88(3):87-99. PubMed PMID: 27558013
  • Alicata C, Bottino C, Guethlein LA, Parham P, Norman PJ. Description of the novel KIR2DL4*035 allele identified using high-throughput sequencing. HLA. 2016 Mar;87(3):191-3. PubMed PMID: 26917249
  • Alicata C, Pende D, Meazza R, Canevali P, Loiacono F, Bertaina A, Locatelli F, Nemat-Gorgani N, Guethlein LA, Parham P, Moretta L, Moretta A, Bottino C, Norman PJ, Falco M. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Improving alloreactive Bw4 donor selection by genotyping codon 86 of KIR3DL1/S1. Eur J Immunol. 2016 Jun;46(6):1511-7. PubMed PMID: 26990677
  • Norman PJ, Hollenbach JA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Marin WM, Norberg SJ, Ashouri E, Jayaraman J, Wroblewski EE, Trowsdale J, Rajalingam R, Oksenberg JR, Chiaroni J, Guethlein LA, Traherne JA, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Defining KIR and HLA Class I Genotypes at Highest Resolution via High-Throughput Sequencing. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Aug 4;99(2):375-91. PubMed PMID: 27486779
  • Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Hilton HG, Parham P. Co-evolution of MHC class I and variable NK cell receptors in placental mammals. Immunol Rev. 2015 Sep;267(1):259-82. PubMed PMID: 26284483
  • Norman PJ, Norberg SJ, Nemat-Gorgani N, Royce T, Hollenbach JA, Shults Won M, Guethlein LA, Gunderson KL, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Very long haplotype tracts characterized at high resolution from HLA homozygous cell lines. Immunogenetics. 2015 Sep;67(9):479-85. PubMed PMID: 26198775
  • Hilton HG, Guethlein LA, Goyos A, Nemat-Gorgani N, Bushnell DA, Norman PJ, Parham P. Polymorphic HLA-C Receptors Balance the Functional Characteristics of KIR Haplotypes. J Immunol. 2015 Oct 1;195(7):3160-70. PubMed PMID: 26311903
  • Abi-Rached L, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Parham P. Chimpanzee susceptibility to hepatitis C virus infection correlates with presence of Pt-KIR3DS2 and Pt-KIR2DL9: paired activating and inhibitory natural killer cell receptors. Immunogenetics. 2015 Oct;67(10):625-8. PubMed PMID: 26260270
  • Hilton HG, Moesta AK, Guethlein LA, Blokhuis J, Parham P, Norman PJ. The production of KIR-Fc fusion proteins and their use in a multiplex HLA class I binding assay. J Immunol Methods. 2015 Oct;425:79-87. PubMed PMID: 26096968
  • Horowitz A, Guethlein LA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Norman PJ, Cooley S, Miller JS, Parham P. Regulation of Adaptive NK Cells and CD8 T Cells by HLA-C Correlates with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and with Cytomegalovirus Reactivation. J Immunol. 2015 Nov 1;195(9):4524-36. PubMed PMID: 26416275
  • Wroblewski EE, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Rudicell RS, Ramirez MA, Li Y, Hahn BH, Pusey AE, Parham P. Signature Patterns of MHC Diversity in Three Gombe Communities of Wild Chimpanzees Reflect Fitness in Reproduction and Immune Defense against SIVcpz. PLoS Biol. 2015 May;13(5):e1002144. PubMed PMID: 26020813
  • Nakimuli A, Chazara O, Hiby SE, Farrell L, Tukwasibwe S, Jayaraman J, Traherne JA, Trowsdale J, Colucci F, Lougee E, Vaughan RW, Elliott AM, Byamugisha J, Kaleebu P, Mirembe F, Nemat-Gorgani N, Parham P, Norman PJ, Moffett A. A KIR B centromeric region present in Africans but not Europeans protects pregnant women from pre-eclampsia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 20;112(3):845-50. PubMed PMID: 25561558
  • Mack SJ, Milius RP, Gifford BD, Sauter J, Hofmann J, Osoegawa K, Robinson J, Groeneweg M, Turenchalk GS, Adai A, Holcomb C, Rozemuller EH, Penning MT, Heuer ML, Wang C, Salit ML, Schmidt AH, Parham PR, Müller C, Hague T, Fischer G, Fernandez-Vina M, Hollenbach JA, Norman PJ, Maiers M. Minimum information for reporting next generation sequence genotyping (MIRING): Guidelines for reporting HLA and KIR genotyping via next generation sequencing. Hum Immunol. 2015 Dec;76(12):954-62. PubMed PMID: 26407912
  • Raghavan M, Steinrücken M, Harris K, Schiffels S, Rasmussen S, DeGiorgio M, Albrechtsen A, Valdiosera C, Ávila-Arcos MC, Malaspinas AS, Eriksson A, Moltke I, Metspalu M, Homburger JR, Wall J, Cornejo OE, Moreno-Mayar JV, Korneliussen TS, Pierre T, Rasmussen M, Campos PF, de Barros Damgaard P, Allentoft ME, Lindo J, Metspalu E, Rodríguez-Varela R, Mansilla J, Henrickson C, Seguin-Orlando A, Malmström H, Stafford T Jr, Shringarpure SS, Moreno-Estrada A, Karmin M, Tambets K, Bergström A, Xue Y, Warmuth V, Friend AD, Singarayer J, Valdes P, Balloux F, Leboreiro I, Vera JL, Rangel-Villalobos H, Pettener D, Luiselli D, Davis LG, Heyer E, Zollikofer CPE, Ponce de León MS, Smith CI, Grimes V, Pike KA, Deal M, Fuller BT, Arriaza B, Standen V, Luz MF, Ricaut F, Guidon N, Osipova L, Voevoda MI, Posukh OL, Balanovsky O, Lavryashina M, Bogunov Y, Khusnutdinova E, Gubina M, Balanovska E, Fedorova S, Litvinov S, Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Mosher MJ, Archer D, Cybulski J, Petzelt B, Mitchell J, Worl R, Norman PJ, Parham P, Kemp BM, Kivisild T, Tyler-Smith C, Sandhu MS, Crawford M, Villems R, Smith DG, Waters MR, Goebel T, Johnson JR, Malhi RS, Jakobsson M, Meltzer DJ, Manica A, Durbin R, Bustamante CD, Song YS, Nielsen R, Willerslev E. POPULATION GENETICS. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans. Science. 2015 Aug 21;349(6250):aab3884. PubMed PMID: 26198033
  • Hilton HG, Norman PJ, Nemat-Gorgani N, Goyos A, Hollenbach JA, Henn BM, Gignoux CR, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Loss and Gain of Natural Killer Cell Receptor Function in an African Hunter-Gatherer Population. PLoS Genet. 2015 Aug;11(8):e1005439. PubMed PMID: 26292085
  • Hollenbach JA, Saperstein A, Albrecht M, Vierra-Green C, Parham P, Norman PJ, Maiers M. Race, Ethnicity and Ancestry in Unrelated Transplant Matching for the National Marrow Donor Program: A Comparison of Multiple Forms of Self-Identification with Genetics. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135960. PubMed PMID: 26287376
  • Nemat-Gorgani N, Edinur HA, Hollenbach JA, Traherne JA, Dunn PP, Chambers GK, Parham P, Norman PJ. KIR diversity in Maori and Polynesians: populations in which HLA-B is not a significant KIR ligand. Immunogenetics. 2014 Nov;66(11):597-611. PubMed PMID: 25139336
  • Sanderson ND, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Ellis SA, Williams C, Breen M, Park SD, Magee DA, Babrzadeh F, Warry A, Watson M, Bradley DG, MacHugh DE, Parham P, Hammond JA. Definition of the cattle killer cell Ig-like receptor gene family: comparison with aurochs and human counterparts. J Immunol. 2014 Dec 15;193(12):6016-30. PubMed PMID: 25398326
  • Horowitz A, Strauss-Albee DM, Leipold M, Kubo J, Nemat-Gorgani N, Dogan OC, Dekker CL, Mackey S, Maecker H, Swan GE, Davis MM, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Desai M, Parham P, Blish CA. Genetic and environmental determinants of human NK cell diversity revealed by mass cytometry. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Oct 23;5(208):208ra145. PubMed PMID: 24154599
  • Norman PJ, Hollenbach JA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Guethlein LA, Hilton HG, Pando MJ, Koram KA, Riley EM, Abi-Rached L, Parham P. Co-evolution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands with killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in a genetically diverse population of sub-Saharan Africans. PLoS Genet. 2013 Oct;9(10):e1003938. PubMed PMID: 24204327
  • Moreno-Estrada A, Gravel S, Zakharia F, McCauley JL, Byrnes JK, Gignoux CR, Ortiz-Tello PA, Martínez RJ, Hedges DJ, Morris RW, Eng C, Sandoval K, Acevedo-Acevedo S, Norman PJ, Layrisse Z, Parham P, Martínez-Cruzado JC, Burchard EG, Cuccaro ML, Martin ER, Bustamante CD. Reconstructing the population genetic history of the Caribbean. PLoS Genet. 2013 Nov;9(11):e1003925. PubMed PMID: 24244192
  • De Santis D, Dinauer D, Duke J, Erlich HA, Holcomb CL, Lind C, Mackiewicz K, Monos D, Moudgil A, Norman P, Parham P, Sasson A, Allcock RJ. 16(th) IHIW : review of HLA typing by NGS. Int J Immunogenet. 2013 Feb;40(1):72-6. PubMed PMID: 23302098
  • Parham P, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Guethlein LA. Human-specific evolution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor recognition of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Mar 19;367(1590):800-11. PubMed PMID: 22312047
  • Parham P, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Hilton HG, Guethlein LA. Review: Immunogenetics of human placentation. Placenta. 2012 Feb;33 Suppl:S71-80. PubMed PMID: 22177321
  • Hammond JA, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Parham P. Natural selection on marine carnivores elaborated a diverse family of classical MHC class I genes exhibiting haplotypic gene content variation and allelic polymorphism. Immunogenetics. 2012 Dec;64(12):915-33. PubMed PMID: 23001684
  • Hilton HG, Vago L, Older Aguilar AM, Moesta AK, Graef T, Abi-Rached L, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Fleischhauer K, Parham P. Mutation at positively selected positions in the binding site for HLA-C shows that KIR2DL1 is a more refined but less adaptable NK cell receptor than KIR2DL3. J Immunol. 2012 Aug 1;189(3):1418-30. PubMed PMID: 22772445
  • Abi-Rached L, Jobin MJ, Kulkarni S, McWhinnie A, Dalva K, Gragert L, Babrzadeh F, Gharizadeh B, Luo M, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Carrington M, Middleton D, Rajalingam R, Beksac M, Marsh SG, Maiers M, Guethlein LA, Tavoularis S, Little AM, Green RE, Norman PJ, Parham P. The shaping of modern human immune systems by multiregional admixture with archaic humans. Science. 2011 Oct 7;334(6052):89-94. PubMed PMID: 21868630
  • Henn BM, Gignoux CR, Jobin M, Granka JM, Macpherson JM, Kidd JM, Rodríguez-Botigué L, Ramachandran S, Hon L, Brisbin A, Lin AA, Underhill PA, Comas D, Kidd KK, Norman PJ, Parham P, Bustamante CD, Mountain JL, Feldman MW. Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 29;108(13):5154-62. PubMed PMID: 21383195
  • Parham P, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Guethlein LA. Variable NK cell receptors exemplified by human KIR3DL1/S1. J Immunol. 2011 Jul 1;187(1):11-9. PubMed PMID: 21690332
  • Gleimer M, Wahl AR, Hickman HD, Abi-Rached L, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Hammond JA, Draghi M, Adams EJ, Juo S, Jalili R, Gharizadeh B, Ronaghi M, Garcia KC, Hildebrand WH, Parham P. Although divergent in residues of the peptide binding site, conserved chimpanzee Patr-AL and polymorphic human HLA-A*02 have overlapping peptide-binding repertoires. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 1;186(3):1575-88. PubMed PMID: 21209280
  • Parham P, Abi-Rached L, Matevosyan L, Moesta AK, Norman PJ, Older Aguilar AM, Guethlein LA. Primate-specific regulation of natural killer cells. J Med Primatol. 2010 Aug;39(4):194-212. PubMed PMID: 20618586
  • Graef T, Moesta AK, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Vago L, Older Aguilar AM, Gleimer M, Hammond JA, Guethlein LA, Bushnell DA, Robinson PJ, Parham P. KIR2DS4 is a product of gene conversion with KIR3DL2 that introduced specificity for HLA-A*11 while diminishing avidity for HLA-C. J Exp Med. 2009 Oct 26;206(11):2557-72. PubMed PMID: 19858347
  • Sharma D, Bastard K, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Yawata N, Yawata M, Pando M, Thananchai H, Dong T, Rowland-Jones S, Brodsky FM, Parham P. Dimorphic motifs in D0 and D1+D2 domains of killer cell Ig-like receptor 3DL1 combine to form receptors with high, moderate, and no avidity for the complex of a peptide derived from HIV and HLA-A*2402. J Immunol. 2009 Oct 1;183(7):4569-82. PubMed PMID: 19752231
  • Gendzekhadze K, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Graef T, Moesta AK, Layrisse Z, Parham P. Co-evolution of KIR2DL3 with HLA-C in a human population retaining minimal essential diversity of KIR and HLA class I ligands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 3;106(44):18692-7. PubMed PMID: 19837691
  • Korbel DS, Norman PJ, Newman KC, Horowitz A, Gendzekhadze K, Parham P, Riley EM. Killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) genotype predicts the capacity of human KIR-positive CD56dim NK cells to respond to pathogen-associated signals. J Immunol. 2009 May 15;182(10):6426-34. PubMed PMID: 19414796
  • Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Gendzekhadze K, Hammond JA, Moesta AK, Sharma D, Graef T, McQueen KL, Guethlein LA, Carrington CV, Chandanayingyong D, Chang YH, Crespí C, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Hameed K, Kamkamidze G, Koram KA, Layrisse Z, Matamoros N, Milà J, Park MH, Pitchappan RM, Ramdath DD, Shiau MY, Stephens HA, Struik S, Tyan D, Verity DH, Vaughan RW, Davis RW, Fraser PA, Riley EM, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Meiotic recombination generates rich diversity in NK cell receptor genes, alleles, and haplotypes. Genome Res. 2009 May;19(5):757-69. PubMed PMID: 19411600
  • Moesta AK, Abi-Rached L, Norman PJ, Parham P. Chimpanzees use more varied receptors and ligands than humans for inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor recognition of the MHC-C1 and MHC-C2 epitopes. J Immunol. 2009 Mar 15;182(6):3628-37. PubMed PMID: 19265141
  • Sanjanwala B, Draghi M, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Polymorphic sites away from the Bw4 epitope that affect interaction of Bw4+ HLA-B with KIR3DL1. J Immunol. 2008 Nov 1;181(9):6293-300. PubMed PMID: 18941220
  • Thomas R, Yamada E, Alter G, Martin MP, Bashirova AA, Norman PJ, Altfeld M, Parham P, Anderson SK, McVicar DW, Carrington M. Novel KIR3DL1 alleles and their expression levels on NK cells: convergent evolution of KIR3DL1 phenotype variation?. J Immunol. 2008 May 15;180(10):6743-50. PubMed PMID: 18453594
  • Moesta AK, Norman PJ, Yawata M, Yawata N, Gleimer M, Parham P. Synergistic polymorphism at two positions distal to the ligand-binding site makes KIR2DL2 a stronger receptor for HLA-C than KIR2DL3. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 15;180(6):3969-79. PubMed PMID: 18322206
  • Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Gendzekhadze K, Korbel D, Gleimer M, Rowley D, Bruno D, Carrington CV, Chandanayingyong D, Chang YH, Crespí C, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Fraser PA, Hameed K, Kamkamidze G, Koram KA, Layrisse Z, Matamoros N, Milà J, Park MH, Pitchappan RM, Ramdath DD, Shiau MY, Stephens HA, Struik S, Verity DH, Vaughan RW, Tyan D, Davis RW, Riley EM, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Unusual selection on the KIR3DL1/S1 natural killer cell receptor in Africans. Nat Genet. 2007 Sep;39(9):1092-9. PubMed PMID: 17694054
  • Abi-Rached L, Dorighi K, Norman PJ, Yawata M, Parham P. Episodes of natural selection shaped the interactions of IgA-Fc with FcalphaRI and bacterial decoy proteins. J Immunol. 2007 Jun 15;178(12):7943-54. PubMed PMID: 17548632
  • Steer SE, Williams FM, Kato B, Gardner JP, Norman PJ, Hall MA, Kimura M, Vaughan R, Aviv A, Spector TD. Reduced telomere length in rheumatoid arthritis is independent of disease activity and duration. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Apr;66(4):476-80. PubMed PMID: 17114192
  • Gendzekhadze K, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Layrisse Z, Parham P. High KIR diversity in Amerindians is maintained using few gene-content haplotypes. Immunogenetics. 2006 Jun;58(5-6):474-80. PubMed PMID: 16738943
  • Morsy MA, Norman PJ, Mitry R, Rela M, Heaton ND, Vaughan RW. Isolation, purification and flow cytometric analysis of human intrahepatic lymphocytes using an improved technique. Lab Invest. 2005 Feb;85(2):285-96. PubMed PMID: 15640833
  • Norman PJ, Parham P. Complex interactions: the immunogenetics of human leukocyte antigen and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Semin Hematol. 2005 Apr;42(2):65-75. PubMed PMID: 15846572
  • Norman PJ, Cook MA, Carey BS, Carrington CV, Verity DH, Hameed K, Ramdath DD, Chandanayingyong D, Leppert M, Stephens HA, Vaughan RW. SNP haplotypes and allele frequencies show evidence for disruptive and balancing selection in the human leukocyte receptor complex. Immunogenetics. 2004 Jul;56(4):225-37. PubMed PMID: 15185041
  • Vampa ML, Norman PJ, Burnapp L, Vaughan RW, Sacks SH, Wong W. Natural killer-cell activity after human renal transplantation in relation to killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigen mismatch. Transplantation. 2003 Oct 27;76(8):1220-8. PubMed PMID: 14578757
  • Carrington CV, Norman PJ, Vaughan RW, Kondeatis E, Ramdath DD, Hameed K, Stephens HA. Analysis of Fc gamma receptor II (CD32) polymorphism in populations of African and South Asian ancestry reveals east-west geographic gradients of allele frequencies. Eur J Immunogenet. 2003 Oct;30(5):375-9. PubMed PMID: 14641546
  • Cook MA, Norman PJ, Curran MD, Maxwell LD, Briggs DC, Middleton D, Vaughan RW. A multi-laboratory characterization of the KIR genotypes of 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop cell lines. Hum Immunol. 2003 May;64(5):567-71. PubMed PMID: 12691708
  • Norman PJ, Carey BS, Stephens HAF, Vaughan RW. DNA sequence variation and molecular genotyping of natural killer leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, LILRA3. Immunogenetics. 2003 Jun;55(3):165-171. PubMed PMID: 12750859
  • Carrington CV, Kondeatis E, Ramdath DD, Norman PJ, Vaughan RW, Stephens HA. A comparison of HLA-DR and -DQ allele and haplotype frequencies in Trinidadian populations of African, South Asian, and mixed ancestry. Hum Immunol. 2002 Nov;63(11):1045-54. PubMed PMID: 12392858
  • Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS. Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 May;70(5):1172-82. PubMed PMID: 11951176
  • Moodie SJ, Norman PJ, King AL, Fraser JS, Curtis D, Ellis HJ, Vaughan RW, Ciclitira PJ. Analysis of candidate genes on chromosome 19 in coeliac disease: an association study of the KIR and LILR gene clusters. Eur J Immunogenet. 2002 Aug;29(4):287-91. PubMed PMID: 12121272
  • Norman PJ, Carrington CV, Byng M, Maxwell LD, Curran MD, Stephens HA, Chandanayingyong D, Verity DH, Hameed K, Ramdath DD, Vaughan RW. Natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) locus profiles in African and South Asian populations. Genes Immun. 2002 Apr;3(2):86-95. PubMed PMID: 11960306
  • Norman PJ, Stephens HA, Verity DH, Chandanayingyong D, Vaughan RW. Distribution of natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor sequences in three ethnic groups. Immunogenetics. 2001;52(3-4):195-205. PubMed PMID: 11220621
  • Ahmadi KR, Hall MA, Norman P, Vaughan RW, Snieder H, Spector TD, Lanchbury JS. Genetic determinism in the relationship between human CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte populations?. Genes Immun. 2001 Nov;2(7):381-7. PubMed PMID: 11704804
  • Hall MA, Ahmadi KR, Norman P, Snieder H, MacGregor AJ, Vaughan RW, Spector TD, Lanchbury JS. Genetic influence on peripheral blood T lymphocyte levels. Genes Immun. 2000 Oct;1(7):423-7. PubMed PMID: 11196672
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