Cara Mack, MD
Professor, Pediatrics-Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

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Medical School:
  • MD, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (1992)
Undergraduate School:
  • BS, University of Wisconsin–Madison (WI) (1986)
Internship:
  • University of Chicago/Comer Children's Hospital Program (1993)
Residency:
  • University of Chicago/Comer Children's Hospital Program, Chief Resident, Pediatrics (1996)
Fellowships:
  • McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University/Children's Memorial Hospital Program, Pediatric Gastroenterology (2001)
Languages: English
Department: Pediatrics-Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

Recognition & Awards

  • Inductee, Best Doctors in America, Best Doctors in America Inc. (2010)
  • Basil O'Connor Starter Scholar Research Award, March of Dimes Foundation (2005)
  • Pediatric Research Abstract Award, American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (2005)
  • Illinois Department of Public Health Scholarship, State of Illinois (1990)
    clinical scholarship
  • Diabetes Young Investigator Award, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine (1989)
    research award
  • Phi Eta Sigma, Freshman Honor Society, Univ of WI Madison (1983)

Research Interests

I am involved in many research projects with the overall theme of optimizing the lives of children with liver diseases. -I am investigating what causes the bile duct injury in biliary atresia. Furthermore, I am involved in a nationwide study to test different agents that may improve liver health in those with biliary atresia. -I am involved in a clinical research study investigating the use of a medicine to improve outcomes in sclerosing cholangitis.

Teaching

  • Associate Professor (2002)
    School of Medicine, Pediatrics
    Pediatric gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, liver transplant

Publications

  • Luo Y, Brigham D, Bednarek J, Torres R, Wang D, Ahmad S, Mack CL. Unique cholangiocyte-targeted IgM autoantibodies correlate with poor outcomes in biliary atresia. Hepatology 2020 Aug 7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32767570
  • Azeltine MW, Chavez E, Nemec KM, Benarek JM, Asokan R, Balasubramaniyan N, Zgheib C, Mack CL, Roach JP. Inflammation Drives miRNAs to limit epatocyte bile acid transport in urine Bilibary atresia. Jrl Surg Res 2020;256:663-72. PMID: 32818799
  • Deneau M, Valentino P, Mack C, Alqoaer K, Amin M, Amir A, Aumar M, Auth M, Broderick A, DiGuglielmo M, Draijer LG, El-Matary W, Ferrari F, Furuya K, Gottrand F, Gupta N, Homan M, Jensen MK, Kamath BM, Kim KM, Kolho KL, Koot BG, Iorio R, Martinez M, Miloh T, Mohan P, Palle S, Papadopoulou A, Ricciuto A, Saubermann L, Sathya P, Shteyer E, Smolka V, Tanaka A, Varier R, Venkat V, Vitola B, Woynarowski M, Guthery S. Assessing the Validity of Adult-derived Prognostic models for PSC outcomes in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020;70(1):12-17. PMID: 31651664
  • Kamath BM, Spino C, McLain R, Magee JC, Setchell KD, Miethke A, Molleston JP, Mack CL, Squires RH, Alonso EM, Murray KF, Loomes KM, Jensen MK, Karpen SJ, Rosenthal P, Thomas D, Sokol RJ, Shneider BL. Unraveling the Relationship between Itching, Scratch Scales, and Biomarkers in Children with Alagille Syndrome. Hepatol Comm 2020;4(7):1012-1018. PMID: 32626833 / PMCID: PMC7327199
  • El-Matary W, Guthery SL, Amir AZ, DiGuglielmo M, Draijer LG, Furuya KN, Gupta N, Hochberg JT, Horslen S, Kerkar N, Koot BG, Laborda TJ, Loomes KM, Mack C, Martinez M, Miethke A, Miloh T, Mogul D, Mohammed S, Moroz S, Ovchinsky N, Perito ER, Rao G, Ricciuto A, Sathya P, Schwarz KB, Shah U, Singh R, Soufi N, Valentino PL, Zizzo A, Deneau MR. Colorectal Dysplasia and Cancer in Pediatric-onset Ulcerative Colitis Associated with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Apr 29. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32360820
  • Deneau MR, Mack C, Perito ER, Ricciuto A, Valentino PL, Amin M, Amir AZ, Aumar M Auth M, Broderic A, et al. The Sclerosing Cholangitis Outcomes in Pediatrics (SCOPE) index: a prognostic tool for children. Hepatology. 2020 May 28. Doi:10.1002/hep.31393. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32464706
  • Feldman AG, Parsons JA, Dutmer CM, Veerapandiyan A, Hafberg E, Maloney N, Mack CL. Subacute Liver Failure Following Gene Replacement Therapy for Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type I. Jrl Pediatr 2020, May 27. Epub ahead of print. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.044. PMID: 32473148
  • Deneau MR, Mack C, Mogul D, Perito ER, Valentino PL, Amir AZ et al. Oral vancomycin, ursodeoxycholic acid or no therapy for pediatric primary sclerosing cholangitis: a matched analysis. Hepatology 2020 Sep 18. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32946600
  • Kemme S, Stahl M, Brigham D, Lovell MA, Nakano T, Feldman AG, Mack C. Outcomes of severe seronegative hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia: a pediatric case series. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2020 Sep 9. Online ahead of print. PMID 32925550
  • Feldman AG, Hsu EK, Mack CL. The Importance of Prioritizing Pre- and Post-Transplant Immunizations in An Era of Vaccine Refusal and Epidemic Outbreaks. Transplantation 2020;104(1):33-38. PMID: 31876696
  • Mack CL, Adams D, Assis DN, Kerkar N, Manns MP, Mayo MJ, Vierling JM, Alsawas M, Murad MH, Czaja AJ. Diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis in adults and children: 2019 practice guidance and guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology 2020;72(2):671-722. PMID: 31863477
  • Vierling JM, Kerkar N, Czaja AJ, Mack CL, Adams D, Assis D, Manns M, Mayo M, Nayfeh T, Majzoub AMMM, Alzuabi MA, Ding J, Haffar S, Murad MH, Alsawas M. Immunosuppressive Treatment Regimens in Autoimmune Hepatitis: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Supporting AASLD Guidelines. Hepatology 2020;72(2):753-769. PMID: 32500593
  • Goldberg A, Mack CL. Inherited cholestatic diseases in the era of personalized medicine. Clin Liver Dis 2020;15(3):105-109. PMID: 32257121
  • Karpen SJ, Kelly D, Mack C, Stein P. Ileal bile acid transporter inhibition as an anticholestatic therapeutic target in biliary atresia and other cholestatic disorders. Hepatol Int. 2020;14(5):677-89. PMID: 32653991
  • Mack CL, Gourley G. Jaundice. Wylie and Hams (eds.), Chpt 16. In: Wylie and Hyams (eds.), Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 6th Edition, Elsevier 2020.
  • Sundaram S, Mack CL. Abnormalities of Carbohydrate Metabolism and the Liver. Chpt. 73. In: Wylie and Hyams (eds.), Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 6th Edition, Elsevier 2020.
  • Sokol RJ, Narkewicz MR, Mark JA, Mack CL, Feldman AG, Sundaram SS: Liver & Pancreas. In: Hay WW, Levin MJ, Deterding RR, Abzug MJ, (eds), Current Pediatric Diagnosis & Treatment, 25th edition McGraw-Hill Medical, NY NY, 2020.
  • Kerkar N, Mack CL. Autoimmune hepatitis. In: Suchy FJ, Sokol RJ, Balistreri WF, Shneider B, Mack CL and Bezerra J (eds.), Liver Disease in Children, 5th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PA. 2020.
  • Taylor S, Narkewicz M, Mack CL. Disorders of Iron Storage. In: Suchy FJ, Sokol RJ, Balistreri WF, Shneider B, Mack CL and Bezerra J (eds.), Liver Disease in Children, 5th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PA. 2020.
  • *K. Loomes,… C. Mack… R. Thompson. Analysis from Phase 2 INDIGO study demonstrates transplant-free survival for pediatric patients with PFIC2. *Late-breaking abstract oral presentation, Digital International Liver Congress (EASL), August, 2020.
  • J. Hochberg, …C. L. Mack…, M. Deneau. Pediatric PSC is Associated with Poor Outcomes in Racial/Ethnic Minorities. Poster Presentation, AASLD Virtual Meeting, 2020.
  • *B.L. Shneider,…. C.L. Mack, …R.J. Sokol. Preliminary Analysis of ITCH and IMAGINE II- Outcome of Long Term Administration of Maralixibat in Children with Alagille Syndrome. *Oral Presentation, AASLD Virtual Meeting, 2020.
  • Black DD, Mack C, Kerkar N, Miloh T, Sundaram SS, Anand R, Gupta A, Alonso E, Arnon R, Bulut P, Karpen S, Lin CH, Rosenthal P, Ryan M, Squires RH, Valentino P, Elsea SH, Shneider BL. A Prospective Trial of Withdrawal and Reinstitution of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Pediatric Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Hepatol Commun. 2019 Nov;3(11):1482-1495. PubMed PMID: 31701072
  • Deneau M, Valentino P, Mack C, Alqoaer K, Amin M, Amir A, Aumar M, Auth M, Broderick A, DiGuglielmo M, Draijer LG, El-Matary W, Ferrari F, Furuya K, Gottrand F, Gupta N, Homan M, Jensen MK, Kamath BM, Kim KM, Kolho KL, Koot BG, Iorio R, Martinez M, Miloh T, Mohan P, Palle S, Papadopoulou A, Ricciuto A, Saubermann L, Sathya P, Shteyer E, Smolka V, Tanaka A, Varier R, Venkat V, Vitola B, Woynarowski M, Guthery S. Assessing the Validity of Adult-Derived Prognostic Models for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Outcomes in Children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31651664
  • Jaramillo C, Gilani A, Haag M, Donaldson N, Mack C. Synovial Cell Sarcoma in an Adolescent Liver Transplant Recipient. ACG Case Rep J. 2019 May;6(5):e00091. PubMed PMID: 31616756
  • Taylor SA, Assis DN, Mack CL. The Contribution of B Cells in Autoimmune Liver Diseases. Semin Liver Dis. 2019 Nov;39(4):422-431. PubMed PMID: 31226726
  • Kim S, Moore J, Alonso E, Bednarek J, Bezerra JA, Goodhue C, Karpen SJ, Loomes KM, Magee JC, Ng VL, Sherker AH, Smith C, Spino C, Venkat V, Wang K, Sokol RJ, Mack CL. Correlation of Immune Markers With Outcomes in Biliary Atresia Following Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy. Hepatol Commun. 2019 May;3(5):685-696. PubMed PMID: 31061956
  • Deneau M, Perito E, Ricciuto A, Gupta N, Kamath BM, Palle S, Vitola B, Smolka V, Ferrari F, Amir AZ, Miloh T, Papadopoulou A, Mohan P, Mack C, Kolho KL, Iorio R, El-Matary W, Venkat V, Chan A, Saubermann L, Valentino PL, Shah U, Miethke A, Lin H, Jensen MK. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Therapy in Pediatric Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Predictors of Gamma Glutamyltransferase Normalization and Favorable Clinical Course. J Pediatr. 2019 Jun;209:92-96.e1. PubMed PMID: 30878206
  • Mack CL, Spino C, Alonso EM, Bezerra JA, Moore J, Goodhue C, Ng VL, Karpen SJ, Venkat V, Loomes KM, Wang K, Sherker AH, Magee JC, Sokol RJ. A Phase I/IIa Trial of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Following Portoenterostomy in Biliary Atresia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019 Apr;68(4):495-501. PubMed PMID: 30664564
  • Kilgore A, Mack CL. Update on investigations pertaining to the pathogenesis of biliary atresia. Pediatr Surg Int. 2017 Dec;33(12):1233-1241. PubMed PMID: 29063959
  • Mark JA, Mack CL, Marwan AI, Kramer RE. Use of Fully Covered Self-Expanding Metal Biliary Stents in Pediatrics: A Case Series. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Aug 23. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28837510
  • Sheiko MA, Sundaram SS, Capocelli KE, Pan Z, McCoy AM, Mack CL. Outcomes in Pediatric Autoimmune Hepatitis and Significance of Azathioprine Metabolites. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Jul;65(1):80-85. PubMed PMID: 28272159
  • Sundaram SS, Mack CL, Feldman AG, Sokol RJ. Biliary atresia: Indications and timing of liver transplantation and optimization of pretransplant care. Liver Transpl. 2017 Jan;23(1):96-109. PubMed PMID: 27650268
  • Fawaz R, Baumann U, Ekong U, Fischler B, Hadzic N, Mack CL, McLin VA, Molleston JP, Neimark E, Ng VL, Karpen SJ. Guideline for the Evaluation of Cholestatic Jaundice in Infants: Joint Recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Jan;64(1):154-168. PubMed PMID: 27429428
  • Deneau MR, El-Matary W, Valentino PL, Abdou R, Alqoaer K, Amin M, Amir AZ, Auth M, Bazerbachi F, Broderick A, Chan A, Cotter J, Doan S, El-Youssef M, Ferrari F, Furuya KN, Gottrand M, Gottrand F, Gupta N, Homan M, Kamath BM, Kim KM, Kolho KL, Konidari A, Koot B, Iorio R, Ledder O, Mack C, Martinez M, Miloh T, Mohan P, O'Cathain N, Papadopoulou A, Ricciuto A, Saubermann L, Sathya P, Shteyer E, Smolka V, Tanaka A, Varier R, Venkat V, Vitola B, Vos MB, Woynarowski M, Yap J, Jensen MK. The natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in 781 children: A multicenter, international collaboration. Hepatology. 2017 Aug;66(2):518-527. PubMed PMID: 28390159
  • Wang KS, Tiao G, Bass LM, Hertel PM, Mogul D, Kerkar N, Clifton M, Azen C, Bull L, Rosenthal P, Stewart D, Superina R, Arnon R, Bozic M, Brandt ML, Dillon PA, Fecteau A, Iyer K, Kamath B, Karpen S, Karrer F, Loomes KM, Mack C, Mattei P, Miethke A, Soltys K, Turmelle YP, West K, Zagory J, Goodhue C, Shneider BL. Analysis of surgical interruption of the enterohepatic circulation as a treatment for pediatric cholestasis. Hepatology. 2017 May;65(5):1645-1654. PubMed PMID: 28027587
  • Feldman AG, Tucker RM, Fenner EK, Pelanda R, Mack CL. B cell deficient mice are protected from biliary obstruction in the rotavirus-induced mouse model of biliary atresia. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e73644. PubMed PMID: 23991203
  • Schwarz KB, Haber BH, Rosenthal P, Mack CL, Moore J, Bove K, Bezerra JA, Karpen SJ, Kerkar N, Shneider BL, Turmelle YP, Whitington PF, Molleston JP, Murray KF, Ng VL, Romero R, Wang KS, Sokol RJ, Magee JC, Childhood Liver Disease Research and Education Network. Extrahepatic anomalies in infants with biliary atresia: results of a large prospective north american multicenter study. Hepatology. 2013 Nov;58(5):1724-31. PubMed PMID: 23703680
  • Tucker RM, Feldman AG, Fenner EK, Mack CL. Regulatory T cells inhibit Th1 cell-mediated bile duct injury in murine biliary atresia. J Hepatol. 2013 Oct;59(4):790-6. PubMed PMID: 23685050
  • Mack CL, Anderson KM, Aubrey MT, Rosenthal P, Sokol RJ, Freed BM. Lack of HLA predominance and HLA shared epitopes in biliary Atresia. Springerplus. 2013 Dec;2(1):42. PubMed PMID: 23505615
  • Feldman AG, Mack CL. Biliary atresia: cellular dynamics and immune dysregulation. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2012 Aug;21(3):192-200. PubMed PMID: 22800972
  • Mack CL, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Gupta N, Leung D, Narkewicz MR, Roberts EA, Rosenthal P, Schwarz KB, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. NASPGHAN practice guidelines: Diagnosis and management of hepatitis C infection in infants, children, and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Jun;54(6):838-55. PubMed PMID: 22487950
  • Tucker RM, Mack CL. Generation of a cholangiocyte-specific cDNA expression library for the identification of B and T cell autoantigens in murine biliary disease. Hepatol Res. 2012 May;42(5):502-7. PubMed PMID: 22236071
  • Brindley SM, Lanham AM, Karrer FM, Tucker RM, Fontenot AP, Mack CL. Cytomegalovirus-specific T-cell reactivity in biliary atresia at the time of diagnosis is associated with deficits in regulatory T cells. Hepatology. 2012 Apr;55(4):1130-8. PubMed PMID: 22105891
  • Kamath BM, Wen Y, Goodrich NP, Loomes KM, Romero R, Heubi JE, Leung DH, Spinner NB, Piccoli DA, Alonso EM, Guthery SL, Karpen SJ, Mack CL, Molleston JP, Murray KF, Rosenthal P, Squires JE, Teckman JH, Wang KS, Thompson RJ, Magee JC, Sokol RJ, the Childhood Liver Disease Research Network. Outcomes of Childhood Cholestasis in Alagille Syndrome: Results of a Multi-Centre Observational Study. Hepatol Commun. 2019, Nov. 27; in press.
  • Venkat V, Ng VL, Magee JC, Wen Y, Hawthorne K, Harpavat S, Molleston JP, Murray KF, Wang KS, Soufi N, Bass LM, Alonso EM, Bezerra JA, Jensen MK, Kamath BM, Loomes KM, Mack CL, Rosenthal P, Shneider BL, Squires RH, Sokol RJ, Karpen SJ, Childhood Liver Disease Research Network. Modeling outcomes in children with biliary atresia with native liver after 2 years of age. Hepatol Comm 2020 Oct 3, Epub ahead of print.
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Professional Memberships

  • American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, Member
  • North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition , Member
  • Society For Pediatric Research (SPR), Member

Practice Locations

Children's Hospital Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
13123 East 16th Ave
Aurora, CO 80045
720-777-1234

Hospital Affiliation
  • Children's Hospital Colorado

Specialty Information

Specialties
  • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Board Certification (2005)
  • Pediatrics, Board Certification (2002)
  • Pediatric Transplant Hepatology, Board Certification (2006)
Conditions & Treatments
  • Digestive System
  • Digestive System - Gastroenterology (Stomach, Bowel, General GI Problems)
  • Digestive System - Hepatology (Liver Disorders)
  • Digestive System - Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Digestive System - Surgical Endoscopy
  • Digestive System - Therapeutic Endoscopy
Clinical Interests
I am interested in neonatal and childhood liver diseases, autoimmune-mediated intestinal and liver disease and pediatric liver transplantation.

Care Philosophy
I strive to offer excellent comprehensive care in the treatment of children with intestinal, pancreas and liver diseases. I also make it a priority to update families as new, cutting edge therapies become available.

Personal Interests
In my free time I enjoy spending time with family, running, biking and skiing.

Volunteer Activities
I participate in at least one fund raising event for Children's Hospital, Organ Donor Alliance or American Liver Foundation. I am part of a group that makes lunches for the homeless in Denver once a month.

General Information

Medical Schools:
  • MD, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (1992)
Undergraduate Schools:
  • BS, University of Wisconsin–Madison (WI) (1986)
Internships:
  • University of Chicago/Comer Children's Hospital Program (1993)
Residency Programs:
  • University of Chicago/Comer Children's Hospital Program, Chief Resident, Pediatrics (1996)
Fellowships:
  • McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University/Children's Memorial Hospital Program, Pediatric Gastroenterology (2001)
Download CV
Languages: English
Department: Pediatrics-Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
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